Sunday, 25 November 2012

Timeline Typos Poster A1

Cave paintings, Lascaux: Discovered in 1940 by teenagers the Lascaux cave paintings are the best example of paleolithic cave paintings. The paintings contain imagery that represents animals, human figures and abstract signs.

Chinese invent movable type: Wooden movable type was first developed around 1040 AD by Bi Sheng (990–1051), as described by the Chinese scholar Shen Kuo (1031–1095), but was abandoned in favour of clay movable types due to the presence of wood grains and the unevenness of the wooden type after being soaked in ink.

Woodblock printing in Europe: In Europe, Woodcut is the oldest technique used for old master prints, developing about 1400, by using on paper existing techniques for printing on cloth. The explosion of sales of cheap woodcuts in the middle of the century led to a fall in standards, and many popular prints were very crude.

Guttenberg perfects typographic printing: Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the global inventor of the printing press. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type.

1450 CEMovable type spreads in Germany
1523 CEGaramond typeface designed
1621 CEFirst English Newspaper
1757 CE

Baskerville Typeface designed: The Baskerville typeface is the result of John Baskerville's intent to improve upon the types of William Caslon. He increased the contrast between thick and thin strokes, making the serifs sharper and more tapered, and shifted the axis of rounded letters to a more vertical position. The curved strokes are more circular in shape, and the characters became more regular. These changes created a greater consistency in size and form. Baskerville also pioneered a completely new style of typography adding wide margins and leading between each line.

1780 CE

Bodoni Typeface designed: Bodoni is a series of serif typefaces first designed by Giambattista Bodoni (1740–1813) in 1798. The typeface is classified as Didone modern. Bodoni followed the ideas of John Baskerville, as found in the printing type Baskerville, that of increased stroke contrast and a more vertical, slightly condensed, upper case, but taking them to a more extreme conclusion.

1784 CEDidot Typeface Designed


The invention of lithography
Johann Alois Senefelder (6 November 1771, Prague – 26 February 1834, Munich) was an Austrian actor and playwright who invented the printing technique of lithography in 1796

1814 CE

Steam powered press: At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, the mechanics of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press were still essentially unchanged, although new materials in its construction, amongst other innovations, had gradually improved its printing efficiency. By 1800, Lord Stanhope had built a press completely from cast iron which reduced the force required by 90%, while doubling the size of the printed area. With a capacity of 480 pages per hour, it doubled the output of the old style press.Nonetheless, the limitations inherent to the traditional method of printing became obvious. Two ideas altered the design of the printing press radically: First, the use of steam power for running the machinery, and second the replacement of the printing flatbed with the rotary motion of cylinders. Both elements were for the first time successfully implemented by the German printer Friedrich Koenig in a series of press designs devised between 1802 and 1818.

1816 CEFirst Sans Serif Typeface

1845 CE1st Clarendon Typeface
Braille Invented

1850-60sWoodtype posters dominate

1886 CE

Linotype Machine Invented

Linotype machine (play /ˈlaɪnətaɪp/), it became the world's leading manufacturer of book and newspaper typesetting equipment; outside North America, its only serious challenger for book production was the United States-/England-based Monotype Corporation. Ottmar Mergenthaler (May 11, 1854 – October 28, 1899) was an inventor who has been called a second Gutenberg because of his invention of the Linotype machine, the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses.

Cheltenham Designed: Cheltenham is an old style serif typeface, designed in 1896 by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue and Ingalls Kimball for use by a New York publisher, the Cheltenham Press.


Copperplate Gothic: Copperplate Gothic is a typeface designed by Frederic W. Goudy and released by the American Type Founders (ATF) in 1901. While termed a "Gothic" (a metonym for sans-serif), the face has small glyphic serifs that act to emphasize the blunt terminus of vertical and horizontal strokes. The typeface shows an unusual combination of influences: the glyphs are reminiscent of stone carving, the wide horizontal axis is typical of Victorian display types, yet the result is far cleaner and leaves a crisp impression in letterpress or offset printing.


Franklin Gothic Designed: Franklin Gothic and its related faces, are realist sans-serif typefaces originated by Morris Fuller Benton (1872–1948) in 1902. “Gothic” is an increasingly archaic term meaning sans-serif. Franklin Gothic has been used in many advertisements and headlines in newspapers.


Neuland Typeface: Neuland is a German typeface that was designed in 1923 by Rudolf Koch. Koch designed it by directly carving the type into metal.

1925 Universal Alphabet
1927 Futura Designed
1928 American modernist typography
1928–30 Gill Sans Designed

Times Roman: Times New Roman is a serif typeface commissioned by the British newspaper The Times in 1931, created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing The Times for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of The Times.


Mistral Designed: Designed by Roger Excoffon. Mistral was based directly on Excoffon's own handwriting, a loose-running script with a great deal of panache.


Haas Grotesque (Helvetica) Designed: Helvetica was developed in 1957 by Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann at the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas type foundry) of Münchenstein, Switzerland. Haas set out to design a new sans-serif typeface that could compete with the successful Akzidenz-Grotesk in the Swiss market. Originally called Neue Haas Grotesk, its design was based on Schelter-Grotesk and Haas’ Normal Grotesk. The aim of the new design was to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, and could be used on a wide variety of signage.

1967 Avant Garde Gothic
1970 Machine Typeface
1974 American Typewriter
1982Adobe Computer Software

Macintosh Computer: On January 24, 1984, Apple announced the Macintosh to its Board of Directors - and to the world. The tiny computer was a radical departure from the large Lisa with it's 12" screen, just as the Lisa itself had been a huge departure from the Apple II series and the growing family of MS-DOS computers on the market.

1984 Macintosh Screen Font
1985 300 DPI Laser Printer
1986 Fontographer

Univers Revolved: Designed by Ji Boyl Lee , a simple geometric formula was applied to the capital letters of the widely used Univers font. With the help of a 3-D computer program, each letter was revolved 360° around a vertical axis drawn at its left-most point.


Gotham Typeface: Gotham is a family of geometric sans-serif typefaces designed by American type designer Tobias Frere-Jones & Jesse Ragan in 2000. Gotham's letterforms are inspired by a form of architectural signage that achieved popularity in the mid-twentieth century, and are especially popular throughout New York City.

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