Friday, 14 September 2012

What are the most historic and significant TYPEFACES?

reference to my amazing book Thinking with Type, Ellen Lupton.

Typographic installation at Grand Central Station, New York City, 1995. Large-scale text creates impact in this public installation.

CLASSIFYING happening in the 19th C. 
1. Humanist or Old Style. The Roman typefaces of the 15th & 16th C emulated classical calligraphy.
2. Transitional. These have sharper serifs and more vertical axis than humanist letters.
3. Modern. Can be inspired by anything and everything.

Sabon based on the 16th C typeface of Claude Garamond.
Designer: Jan Taschichold
Year: 1966
Baskerville has sharp forms and high contrast, it was considered shocking when it was introduced.
Designer: John Baskerville
Year: 1757
Bodoni is a Serif typeface and was radically abstract at its time. It has thin, straight serifs; vertical axis; and sharp contrast from thick to thin strokes.
Designer: Giambattista Bodoni
Year: 1798
Clarendon along with many other bold and decorative typefaces were introduced in the 19th C for the use of advertising. Egyptian typefaces have heavy, slablike serifs. 
Designer: Robert Besley 
Year: 1845
Gill Sans is a sans serif typeface that became popular in the 20th C. It has humanist qualities: note the small lilting counter in the letter a, and calligraphic variations in line and weight.
Designer: Eric Gill
Year: 1928
Helvetica  is one of the world's most widely used typefaces. It's uniform upright character makes it similar to transitional serif letters. These fonts are also referred to as 'annonymous sans serif'.
Designer: Max Miedinger
Year: 1957
Futura a sans serif build around geometric froms. The O's are perfect circles, and the peaks of the A and M are sharp like triangles.
Designer: Paul Renner
Year: 1927
Caslon was inspired by pages printed by William Caslon. Hailed as the first original typeface of English origin
Designer: Carol Twombly
Year: 1990
Centaur is a Humanist typeface and is based on the 15 C hand of Ludovico degli Arrighi.
Designer: Bruce Rogers
Year: 1912-14
For: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Century Expanded derived from the original Century Roman
Designer: Morris Fuller Benton
Year: 1900
Didot named after the famous French printing and type producing family. It was development of a high contrast typeface with an increased stress is contemporary to similar faces in Italy(Bodoni).
Designer: Johnathan Hoefler
Year: 1784
Fedra Sans was designed as a "de-prostestantized Univers". it humanises the communicated message and adds simple, informal elegance. The most important criterion was to create a typeface which works equally well on paper and on the computer screen.
Designer: Peter Bilak
Year: 2001
Filosofia is a revival of the types of Bodoni
Designer: Zuzana Licko
Year: 1996
Frutiger  originally a sans serif, it was later expanded to include ornamental and serif typefaces.
Designer: Adrian Frutiger (SWISS)
Year: 1976
For: Charles De Gaulle International Airport,Roissy (France), needed for directional sign system.
Franklin Gothic has been used in many ads and headlines in Newspapers. Is very bold and is named after Benjamin Franklin.
Designer: Morris Fuller Benton
Year: 1904
Garamond is named after the punch-cutter Claude Garamond. The typeface convey a sense of fluidity and consistency.
Designer: Matthew Carter
Year: 1996
Gotham is a family of geometric sans-serif digital typefaces, inspired by a form of popular architectural signage especially throughout New York City
Designer: Tobias Frere-Jones
Year: 2000
Meta humanist sans-serif typeface, praised as the Helvetica of the 90's.
Designer: Erik Spiekermann
Year: 1991
For: Deutsche Bundespost (West German Post Office)
Mrs Eaves inspired by John Baskerville, and is named after his wife. Mrs Eaves is a revival of the types of English printer and punchcutter John Baskerville, and is related to contemporary Baskerville typefaces.
Designer: Zuzana Licko
Year: 1996
Neutraface is based on the lettering created by architect Richard Neutra. It is a geometric sans-serif typeface, widely used and is even the subject of a parody of Lady Gaga's song "Poker Face".
Designer: Christian Schwartz
Year: 2002
Nobel is based on the 1929 types by Dutch typeographer Sjoerd Henrik de Roos. Frere-Jones describes it as "Futura cooked in a dirty pan".
Designer: Tobias Frere-Jones
Year: 1993
News Gothic is a realist sans-serif typeface.
Designer: Morris Fuller Benton
Year: 1908
For: American Type Founders
Thesis Serif was created to provide a modern humanist corporate font.
Designer: Lucas de Groot
Year: 1994
Trade Gothic is inspired by 19th C grotesques.
Designer: Jackson Burke
Year: 1948-60
Univers is a realist sans-serif typeface,  it is part of the figure prominently in the Swiss Style of graphic design.
Designer: Adrian Frutiger
Year: 1957
Walbaum was inspired by other Modern Didone typefaces: Bodoni and Didot. Its extreme vertical stress, and fine hairlines contrasted with bold main strokes are typical of Modern fonts, yet Walbaum has many unique character quirks that make it open, warm, and very graceful.
Designer: Justus Erich Walbaum
Year: 1800
Verdana has a large X height, simple curves, open forms, and loose spacing.
Designer: Matthew Carter
Year: 1996
Georgia serif screen face built with sturdy strokes, simple curves, open counters, and generous spacing.
Designer: Matthew Carter
Year: 1996
For: Microsoft
Hoefler Text contemporary serif Antiqua font that demonstrates advanced type technologies. It was created to allow the composition of complex typography; as such it takes cues from a range of classic fonts, such as Garamond and Janson.
Designer: Johnathan Hoefler
Year: 1995
For: Apple computer
Adobe Jenson  takes it's Roman styles from Venetian oldstyle text face cut by Nicolas Jenson in 1470, and its italics are based on those by Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi
Designer: Robert Slimbach
Year: 1995
For: Adobe systems
Quadraat combines Renaissance elegance with contemporary ideas on construction and form.
Designer: Fred Smeijers
Year: 1992
Scala like many contemporary Dutch serif faces, it is not an academic revival of a single historic typeface but shows influences of several historic models: Electra in its clarity of form, and rhythmic, highly calligraphic italics & Joanna with its old style armature but nearly square serifs is also similar in its nearly mono-weighted stroke width.
Designer: Morris Fuller Benton
Year: 1908
For: Vredenburg Music Center in Utrecht, Netherlands

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